The Florida Cracker breed isn’t included in The Field Guide to Fleece or The Fleece & Fiber Sourcebook because when Carol Ekarius and I were working on those books these sheep were being included in the Gulf Coast Native population.
- 2007 – we started the book project(s)—in this same year, the Florida Cracker Sheep Association was formed, but that was after we’d developed our working lists
- 2009 – Florida Cracker was placed on The Livestock Conservancy’s “study” list
- 2011 – The Fleece & Fiber Sourcebook published
- 2013 – Florida Cracker recognized as a separate breed, in the most vulnerable conservation category (along with its close relative, the Gulf Coast Native)
I have been researching the breed’s history, and have had access to three fleeces in order to start developing some ideas about the wool.
These are descendants of sheep that arrived in the southeastern United States with Spanish explorers more than 450 years ago. Up until the end of World War II, or about 70 years ago, they roamed free, being rounded up once or twice a year. (Just after WWII, open grazing ended in Florida.) Only the most heat-, parasite-, and predator-resistant sheep survived.
The base population appears to have been the Spanish commoners’ sheep, the churro or churra, augmented over the years by some finer-wooled strains, possibly including some Merino, Rambouillet, white-faced English breeds, and American Tunis.
Gathering background data
So first I dug into the history and genetics, as far as possible, and wrote up what I found. While engaged in those activities, I washed the three fleeces. Here’s what I learned:
- raw weights between 3–3½ pounds (1.4–1.5 kg) with 47–57% yield
Because I couldn’t find any analytical data on Florida Cracker wool, I also pulled sample locks and sent them off to the lab at Texas A&M to be run through the scanner (OFDA 2000). I sent two locks each from fleeces #1 and #3, and three from fleece #2. In each case, the first lock in my series was the most typical of the fleece as a whole, and the second (and third) represented less characteristic sections. This is not the way wool is sampled for breeding purposes; it’s a spinner’s curiosity selection.
Here’s what the results indicated:
- average fiber diameters between 24 and 34 microns
- staple lengths 1¾”–2⅓” (3.5–6 cm); there were a lot of second cuts, so I expect annual growth is actually closer to 2″–3″ (5–7.5 cm)
Then I did a bit more hands-on exploring.
Fleece #1—Well, that was unexpected!
The staple lengths varied from about 1 inch (2.5cm) to 2½ inches (6.3cm), some of the tips were stuck together, and second cuts abounded. If I had carded the fleece, I would have ended up with even more lumps and bumps in the yarn than I did. I used mini-combs, which removed the second cuts but allowed me to combine the varying spinnable staple lengths. I found it essential to proceed very gradually from the tips to the bases of the locks while combing to keep the combs from getting jammed up (and to make my work easier). Then I spun directly from one of the combs.
The finished sample yarn looked and felt like twine. Its color is a warm white.
The surprise came when I washed it. It’s about as bouncy as anything I’ve experienced other than Santa Cruz wool. The unwashed, relaxed skein measures 32 inches (81cm). The washed relaxed skein measures 27 inches (67cm), but can easily extend by 120% and then spring back to its relaxed dimensions.
The two locks from this fleece averaged between 32 and 34 microns, thus the “coarsest” of the three. I’d call the wool crisp, rather than coarse. The finished yarn has a pleasant hand that feels significantly softer than the numbers suggest.
Fleece #2: Variability is part of the landrace package
A landrace is a population that has developed to fit a particular environmental and cultural niche. The gene pool of a landrace embodies significant diversity, which allows it to continue adapting. Landraces often thrive in marginal conditions; they are not the most productive animals, but they are survivors.
The Florida Cracker Breed Association’s criteria for wool specify that it “should be free from hair fiber.” While I found some hair in this fleece—both longer, white fibers and short, red fibers—they were far from widespread. The hairy portions likely came from the britch, or hip, area and could be skirted out. Interestingly, even though two of the locks I sent to the lab contain some hair, all three locks averaged between 26 and 28 microns.
Fleece #3: Softest, most appealing, but lacking in “character”
Character in wool is a bit hard to define, but generally wool with good character has visible and even crimp and well-formed locks, with both crimp and lock structure of types considered to be typical of the breed being examined. Take a look at the photo of this fleece and you will observe the opposite of character: the locks are not well defined and the crimp is a jumble. (Some fleeces have disorganized crimp and still have character.) The completely untechnical term I would use to describe this fleece is “visually foggy.”
That said, it is the softest-feeling of the three and has the most consistent staple lengths. The micron counts ranged from 24 to 27, and the locks were close to 2½ inches (6.3cm). I predicted that it would be comparatively easy to prepare and spin, and it was. Again, I used mini-combs and spun directly from one comb.
Interestingly, the resulting yarn, which was ivory-colored in contrast to the warm white of fleece #1’s yarn and in contrast to its own appearance before spinning, did not demonstrate any unusual amount of elasticity. It has a pleasant hand and would be comfortable next to the skin for many people.
What I learn from initial experiments
When there is no data available to me for a breed’s wool, even small bits of information can start to build a picture. It’s important not to extrapolate too far, although in researching for the two books I occasionally discovered that broad generalizations about some fibers had been widely disseminated based on relatively small numbers of examples—like fewer than ten. When I’m working from a small sample size, I note that.
I think Florida Cracker wool—which was, historically, a source of fiber for families in the southeastern U.S.—has a lot more potential than it’s been given credit for in the contemporary world. It seems to have a softer hand than its micron counts suggest. And I’ll be curious to learn whether the surprising elasticity of my sample from fleece #1 is a rarity or something that occurs with any regularity.
Shave ’Em to Save ’Em
The Livestock Conservancy—our advocates for rare-breed livestock—has recently initiated a project called Shave ’Em to Save ’Em, with the goal of connecting breeders of rare sheep with fiber folk, and fiber folk with the diverse and versatile fibers produced by those sheep. People can participate using raw fleece, roving or top, or yarn. Florida Cracker is one of the featured breeds. There’s basic information here and a Facebook group here.